Presented by David L Cantrell Jr. on February 19, 2003
Table of Contents
- 1. Introduction
- 1.1. MTA, MUA, and MDA
- 2. sendmail
- 3. The configuration files
- 4. Writing a sendmail configuration file
- 5. Starting and Stopping sendmail
- 6. Examples
- 7. Resources
sendmail is one of the most popular SMTP servers available. Other popular
ones include qmail and postfix. People stand behind their choice of mail
server like their choice of editor. I have used qmail and sendmail
extensively, but definitely understand sendmail to the greatest degree.
This presentation is aimed at someone who is interested in setting up
sendmail, but doesn’t understand how it works. I hope we can get some
volunteers to do presentations on other mail servers in the future.
I plan to explain in general how the UNIX mail system is designed to
work, how you can get sendmail up and running, a walk through the
configuration files, and lastly some examples of sendmail configurations.
I am by
no means a sendmail expert, but I understand enough of it to get it
working in several scenarios.
1.1. MTA, MUA, and MDA
The UNIX mail system follows the basic UNIX design principle, that is,
each program really only does one task. The basic components of the mail
- MTA: mail transport agent (e.g., sendmail)
- MUA: mail user agent (e.g., mutt)
- MDA: mail delivery agent (e.g., procmail)
When you compose a message, you typically do so from within your MUA.
When you send the message, the MUA hands the message to the MTA. The MTA
reads the envelope and directs it to the appropriate system where it is
handled by the MDA for delivery. The MTA is a very important part of the
mail system, so this document is mostly about configuring a popular MTA:
sendmail is one of the most popular MTA packages available. Other popular
ones include qmail and postfix. Great wars have been fought over which
one is really the best one to use, but in the end it doesn’t really
matter. This document covers sendmail, but I hope future presentations
cover the other MTA choices.
2.1. What and Where
sendmail was written by Eric Allman at UCB for the BSD UNIX operating
system. It has been ported to almost every platform in existence. Most
Linux distributions and commercial UNIX operating systems include sendmail
in one form or another. Linux distributions generally use the latest
releases from sendmail.org, while commercial distributions lag behind
since they like maintaining their own forks of the sendmail source tree.
Whatever system you’re using, if you plan on using sendmail, check to make
sure it is the latest available. If it isn’t, head over to
www.sendmail.org and download the
latest version. Documentation is
included for compiling it on your system.
2.2. How sendmail should run
In the ideal environment, sendmail runs on each machine handling local
mail transport and delivery, as well as talking to a main SMTP node. A
lot of people like this setup, since it allows for mail composition from
almost anywhere. But, unless properly configured, your mail spool ends up
on several machines. The common way to overcome the multiple mail spool
problem is to keep your mail spool on an NFS mount. In my opinion, this
is totally unnecessary. Most people agree and end up with…
2.3. How most people run sendmail
Designate a system as your mail server. Configure sendmail to deliver
mail on this system. Mail composition and reading can be handled through
hear. If remote access is desired, allow POP3 or IMAP access to mail
spools. This configuration is much more desirable than the other
2.4. Check your sendmail version
Sendmail is usually installed as /usr/sbin/sendmail or /usr/lib/sendmail.
Some bizarre systems may even install it as /usr/etc/sendmail. If
sendmail is running on your system, check the version by connecting to the
You can hit the escape sequence to drop back to the shell. Or simply type
‘quit’ and the server will close the connection.
Sendmail is pretty easy to build and install by hand. Most all Linux
distributions include it, except Debian. Check and see if you have it
already or if there is a package available. It will save time.
If you must compile and install it by hand, follow these steps:
- Download the source from ftp.sendmail.org. I reference version 8.12.7
here, which is the latest version available. Be sure to use the latest
version of sendmail available.
gzip -dc sendmail.8.12.7.tar.gz | tar -xvf -
# Follow the steps in the INSTALL file, which walk you through compiling
# sendmail and setting up your configuration files.
2.6. Ties with procmail
The sendmail software can be combined with procmail which results in a
nice system for mail delivery on top of sendmail. Procmail is a topic for
an entirely different presentation. It’s worth noting here because if you
are installing sendmail from scratch, be sure to get procmail. You will
most certainly want it. Moshe can answer your procmail questions at all
hours of the night. That’s why he has a pager.
3. The configuration files
Sendmail reads several different configuration files to figure out what
it should be doing. These files are explained below. This list is not
complete, but covers the most common files you’re likely to encounter.
The sendmail.mc file is your main sendmail configuration file.
Technically the program reads sendmail.cf and not sendmail.mc. Since
sendmail.cf is not modifiable by humans, we write the mc file and run it
through m4 to generate the sendmail.cf file. The configuration elements
you put in your mc are actually m4 macros that get expanded to the real
configuration elements for sendmail.
Why is it done this way? Well, sendmail was designed to be somewhat
like a machine. It doesn’t really know what to do except load sendmail.cf
and "execute" it. So think of sendmail.cf as an embedded language that
drives sendmail. It may seem silly, but that’s because it is. Sendmail
came out of an era where computing resources were much more scarce, so
saving time and making the most of what you had was important. I don’t
care at all about my sendmail.cf file. I only edit my mc file and have it
automatically generate the cf file. I think the mc file should be named
.cf, but it isn’t, so we get this layer of confusion.
Ever emailed a webmaster@something email address? It’s fairly common.
Try to make a user account with the name ‘webmaster’. It won’t happen,
usernames are limited to 8 characters. The way we get the webmaster
address is by using an alias. The aliases file maps email address aliases
to something, usually a real user account.
Sendmail doesn’t directly read the aliases file, it reads the
aliases.db file. This is a BerkDB format of aliases. Again, the
historical reasoning comes in to play here. Each time you modify the
aliases file, you need to run
newaliases to update the BerkDB
This is a plain text file listing host access rights to the server. The
default policy of sendmail is to accept mail locally or for domains that
it is specifically configured for. However, if you get a steady stream of
spam from a specific host, consider listing that host in the access file.
For example, the entry:
co.kr ERROR:"550 Korea is a gigantic spam house; go away"
Denies all mail coming from servers on the co.kr domain. The error
message defined is returned by sendmail and typically written to the log
files on their end.
This provides the outbound name to virtual address mapping, that is, the
reverse of what the virtusertable does. For a proper virtual domain
configuration, you will need to configure this file as well as the
virtusertable (described below).
This is a file that must be compiled to BerkDB format before sendmail
can read it.
This file contains custom domain routing information. You may wish to
specifically route all email to addresses on the gatech.edu domain through
a different SMTP server. This is the file where you define that.
This file must be compiled in to a BerkDB file that sendmail actually
This is a plain text file that lists individual hosts or ranges of hosts
that are allowed to relay mail off your server. You’ll need this if you
want to be able to use your mail server as an SMTP server when configuring
a program like Evolution.
This file maps usernames from one hostname to a real user or another
hostname. This file is used to set up virtual domains and virtual
This is another file that must be converted to BerkDB format before
sendmail can read it.
This file lists the domain names that you are delivering mail on. If you
own headnut.org and want to accept AND deliver mail for that domain, you
need to put headnut.org in the local-host-names file.
This file sometimes differs in name across various distributions. Red
Hat used to (or still does) call it sendmail.cw. Some simply call it
locals. The format and purpose are the same, but the name may be
You may have noticed that among the sendmail configuration files there
are several inconsistencies. Namely, some files are plain text, some are
special format files (BerkDB), and some are macro processed files. This
is one of the things that bothers me about sendmail, but it’s not the end
of the world.
3.3. Message Submission Program
If you wish to have users remotely connect to your SMTP to send
outgoing email, you should consider using the message submission program
with sendmail. I won’t go in to the details here, but here is a link:
With MSP, you can configure sendmail to require user logins and
passwords to connect to the SMTP server.
4. Writing a sendmail configuration file
4.1. sendmail.mc authoring
The format of the mc file is fairly simple. It is a list of m4 macros
and accompanying options. Generally there is one macro per line. Let’s
make a basic configuration file. We’ll start with the basic settings:
VERSIONID(`My very own sendmail.mc')
We now have some basic settings, but we should add some features to the
mail server. First note the use of capital letters for VERSIONID, OSTYPE,
and DOMAIN. These are the m4 macro names. The values in the parentheses
are the options for that macro. Please take a note to ask me about m4
quoting if I haven’t already explained it.
Features are added using the FEATURE macro. I’m going to add some
common features to my mc file:
FEATURE(access_db, `hash -o -T
We should define a couple of settings for the configuration file.
define(`confCW_FILE', `-o /etc/mail/local-host-names')
Lastly, we need to set some mailers for our system:
This configures sendmail for local mail operation and SMTP mail
operation. Now, there are a ton of other settings available for sendmail.
Rather than buying the Bat Book, I recommend you refer to the
documentation on sendmail.org:
The Sendmail Consortium provides a nice HTML browsable copy of the
documentation that ships with sendmail. This is a very good reference.
4.2. Generating sendmail.cf
Generating the cf file for sendmail uses the m4 macro processor. Some
distributions provide a Makefile in /etc/mail that automatically generates
the configuration file. If you don’t have this, you’ll need to run the m4
command by hand. You run m4 and pass it the path to the sendmail macro
directory and the path to the main sendmail configuration file macro and
your new mc file. That’s a mouthful. Here’s what you do:
m4 -D_CF_DIR=/usr/share/sendmail/cf \
This assumes your sendmail m4 directory is in /usr/share/sendmail/cf.
It may be in a different location on your system. Sometimes you’ll find
it in /usr/src/sendmail. Once you run the above command, you’ll have a
ready-to-use sendmail.cf file.
5. Starting and Stopping sendmail
5.1. The queue runner and sendmail
To start the server, I run these commands:
/usr/sbin/sendmail -L sm-mta -bd -q25m
/usr/sbin/sendmail -L sm-msp-queue -Ac -q25m
This starts the sendmail MTA as well as the queue runner. Your
distribution probably includes some form of a script that runs the above
two commands in a dozen lines or so. If a script is provided in
/etc/init.d, you should use that.
To stop sendmail, I issue this command:
Sendmail reacts to signals in a normal manner and when it is sent SIGTERM
it will shut itself down.
6.1. Acting as a primary mail server
Acting as a primary mail server means we want to accept and deliver mail
for a specific domain. Assuming you have the proper MX records configured
according to Moshe’s BIND presentation, you’re ready to set up sendmail as
your primary nameserver.
In this case, all we need to do is add the domain to the
/etc/mail/local-host-names configuration file and restart
sendmail. Mail will be accepted for that domain and sendmail will deliver
it on the system.
6.2. Acting as a backup mail server for your best friend
As Moshe stated in his BIND presentation, sendmail is smart enough to know
if it is a backup MX server. If it determines it is the backup server and
the domain is not listed in local-host-names, sendmail will spool the mail
and try to pass it on to the primary MX at a later time.
You can run
sendmail -qf to give sendmail a swift kick to
deliver any messages it has waiting for a primary MX.
6.3. Masquerading as another server
This idea of masquerading as another server is useful if you access the
Internet through a dialup connection. You can run sendmail locally and
compose messages locally, but sendmail will be configured to pass all
outbound messages to the server it is masquerading as. What you generally
don’t want is for sendmail to pass all mail, even local mail, to the other
server. The options below can be added to your sendmail.mc file to enable
FEATURE(`genericstable', `hash -o /etc/mail/genericstable.db')
You should add
localhost and the hostname you are
masquerading as to the local-host-names file.
The genericstable file can be used to map local user names to the
remote address name.
6.4. Running mail for a virtual domain
With a virtual domain configuration, you simply populate the virtusertable
and genericstable with the mappings for the virtual address to the real
user name. Be sure to set up the hostname and usernames first.
There is a wealth of great sendmail information on the Interweb and
probably on your own computer.
7.1. man pages
The commands and files associated with the sendmail system
ship with good man pages. Be sure to consult these when
you’re looking for an answer.
The Sendmail Consortium (not to be confused with Sendmail, Inc.)
supports the open source releases of sendmail. They provide a
lot of documentation, FAQs, security notices, and links to
Not specifically part of this presentation, but it’s worth noting
that procmail ties in very well with the sendmail system. If you
will be using sendmail, consider using it with procmail to get a
nice mail system. Moshe is available to answer all of your
7.4. Don’t Blame Sendmail
This page talks about problems people encounter and blame sendmail for.
Worth a look if you plan on running your own server.